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To a large extent, heat exhaustion and heat stroke were prevented by attention to acclimatization, adequate water and salt intake, early removal from Hawaii male lookin for black pussy when symptoms or s suggested heat-related illness, and prompt supportive treatment for heat-related casualties.

My idea of an oasis, of course, was a little pool of water and three strategically placed palm trees, and that was it. In particular, we acknowledge the initiative, dedication, and countless hours of work by Dr. Armand P. Gelpi, without whose efforts this project could not have been done.

This manuscript is made available for research purposes. There is more about trachoma: the disease, the village surveys which mapped its epidemiology, about laboratory isolation of the infectious agent, the use of a new screening technique--fluorescent antibody microscopy--to identify and quantify the infectious agent in scrapings from the inner eyelid surfaces, about the vaccine trial, and about treatment and prevention.

Contributors elaborate on some of the clinical problems encountered among American employees and their dependents, as well as those which were more representative of the Saudi work force and Saudi dependents.

The reason that little is made of this change by those contributing to this oral history collection is simply that changing Aramco's Medical Department to Saudi Aramco Medical Services Organization SAMSO was gradual, smooth, and essentially uncomplicated.

So I stopped at the London School of Tropical Medicine to see what I could find out about malaria in that part of the world.

Daggy began by taking a malaria survey in about fifteen villages throughout the Eastern Province. Besides anecdotal information on how they came to work in Aramco's health care program, contributors elaborate on the many facets of health care--both to Americans and to Saudis and their families--and on life in Saudi Arabia.

The population was primarily divided into two groups: The Bedouin, who lived out in the desert, and the so-called "Sown," who were With good company is more fun farmers.

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: University Press, Another helminth infection of some importance was ascariasis. And in an oil-producing area, with a subtropical-to-tropical climate, there were health risks in oil exploration, production, refining, storage, and transportation.

Much of Aramco's administrative apparatus and its personnel, community services, and medical care were housed in air-conditioned environments. InAramco began to add more hospital beds to its existing clinic facilities. What wasn't appreciated at the time was that Q fever is one of the most communicable of all infections--the inhalation of just a few organisms being enough to produce infection, sometimes illness.

It all began inwith the arrival of T. Alexander, M. Alexander's clinic was the first in the region and the first in the field for an American oil company operating in Saudi Arabia. I found these pictures to show you. First there was the need for health care for the Americans.

Then I flew on from London and I very vividly remember flying into Malta. Daggy contributed further to the project by underwriting lodging expenses for my trip to Boston to interview him and other members of the Aramco Medical Department. One of the brilliant chapters in the story of Aramco's health care program is its history of dental care for expatriates and their families, and eventually for the Saudi population under the wing of Aramco's health care program.

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And it is a story of major research efforts carried out Harmony adult shop such diseases as malaria, trachoma, sickle cell disease, and schistosomiasis. But some merit comment here. Khattab, M.

Last of all I want to thank Mr. Gelpi, M. December 9, Sonoma, California. This symbol indicates that a tape or tape segment has begun or ended. The British had done some work on malaria control in Palestine and the Middle East. Daggy delineated the of his ten-year study in a major article published in The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in His son, Hormoz Soheili, prepared a delicious lunch, which we ate on an outdoor balcony overlooking woods, a stream, and a bird feeder with many visitors.

He was a geologist who came out originally, way Looking for hiking sex dhahran maybe camping before my time; he is long since dead.

Like retired military, most went on to other careers. There were some deaths among the Saudi employees, but not very many. Ultimately, it was possible to obtain a generous grant from the donations committee of Saudi Aramco in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, and after engaging The Bancroft Library and those who were destined to be contributors to this oral history collection, the project got underway.

In terms of its scope of activity and accomplishments, it Free online sex coventry coequal with curative medicine, and in this sense it filled a unique role in establishing standards for sanitation, pest control, communicable disease prevention, and other environmental safeguards for the company, its employees and dependents, and the communities in which they resided.

In its early years, psychiatric problems of any consequence among expatriates were managed by referral to U.

Ultimately, and despite cultural barriers, it was recognized that psychiatric disability was not uncommon among indigenous peoples of the Middle East.

This phenomenon had been observed in Africa, other parts of the Middle East, and in an earlier, widespread epidemic in India.

Railro, ro, electrification, natural gas recovery--all were added to the company's accomplishments to the benefit of the local economy.

In most cases, the disease agent could not be identified, but Shigella species ed for most of the bacterial isolates from stool samples. The Bancroft Library, on behalf of future researchers, wishes to thank the following individuals and organizations whose contributions have made possible this oral history of the Aramco Medical Department.

They said that they'd like to interview me in New York. Generally regarded as relatively asymptomatic, it can sometimes be complicated by intestinal obstruction because of excessive s of parasites in the gut. The type of G6PD deficiency encountered among Saudis is severe, with almost complete absence of this red cell enzyme, which, among other problems, can lead to abrupt and intense hemolysis in affected subjects who ingest fava beans.

New laboratory facilities were required, and this made possible research into local tropical diseases, including a study of trachoma tly sponsored by Aramco and Harvard Medical School.

This collection would not have been possible without the splendid, individual contributions from former members of Aramco and Saudi Aramco's health care program. Measles and chicken pox remained vexing problems among Aramco's Saudi dependent children. Tuberculosis remained an endemic problem.

Aramco also had some part of the problem, especially in their Saudi Arab employees and their Saudi Arab dependents. The incidence Looking for fuck for bend sexually transmitted disease increased through the s, with gonococcal infection most often reported.

The population of Western smokers was again what you might expect --about 40 percent--before that landmark announcement by the U. Surgeon General in the s. To cite an individual interview: ex. Who could best tell this tale? Thus, the oasis Saudis have a ificant immunity against vivax malaria.

The nearest facility was at Bahrain. As originally conceived, Aramco's health care program would be primarily concerned with employee health in an occupational setting. A guide to the tapes follows the transcript. The office is under the direction of Willa K. Baum, Division Head, and the administrative direction of Charles B.

Faulhaber, James D. Richard Daggy--One of the most important elements of Aramco's health care program--dating back to Aramco's early years--was its medical department's division of preventive medicine.

Generally, this would result from ignition of loose garments. Yes, some of them, and sometimes, especially in the malaria season, they would come down with malaria.

When I arrived, they Fremantle transgender bars me up in New York at the hotel, and I soon found out in talking to them that there was indeed a malaria problem, and I was interested in it.

We can see how physicians, nurses, other technical staff, and administrators were personally affected by their experiences with Saudis and Saudi society, by Tallinn peabody massage in Saudi Arabia, and by their new understanding of Middle East cultures.

Virginia Dooling, RN, was key player in the nursing service--both in hands-on nursing care and nursing administration. Despite the fact that Saudi Arabia was changing rapidly from a developing country into a nation which would resemble the technocracies of the West, the profile of disease was more representative of many third-world countries during the s.

It was difficult to test these Gay club in yucaipa under conditions of continuing environmental change. Typhoid reached a peak inwith eighty-four cases reported in Aramco facilities for the year.

By that time, company ownership had been vested in the Saudis, who continued the work of the Medical Department. Hospitalizations steadily increased from toafter which there was a steady decline through and beyond.

The essential financial support was provided by Saudi Aramco's donations committee, both to get the project underway and to keep it afloat My thanks goes also to Willa Baum, director of the Regional Oral History Office, and to Shannonits office manager, and to other staff for their support and interest.

Thus, cooperation became the keynote. Since the Regional Oral History Office has been interviewing leading participants in or well-placed witnesses to major events in the development of Northern California, the West, and the Nation.

They raised dates and winter vegetables, alfalfa for their animals, and so on. And this, together with the more effective Dieldrin spraying, left malaria as a vanishing disease.

Upstairs in roomhe undressed to his boxer shorts, folded his clothes neatly on to the coffee table and lowered himself into the bath tub, Looking for hiking sex dhahran maybe camping a pillow behind his back.

Which left the issue of alcohol consumption by non-Muslim foreigners somewhat ambiguous. And of course there is interaction with the sickle cell trait to produce genetic admixture which also modifies the expression of sickle cell disease and limits its severity.

In summary, this collection of oral histories is a record of astonishing achievement in the provision of health care services to employees and dependents of a major oil company operating in a harsh environment and in a rapidly changing society and national economy.

Malaria was prevalent, and local village people needed help; mosquito abatement would clearly benefit both the people and the company. In some places, he found percent were positive. They repeatedly refer to the interaction between Aramco's health care staff and the physicians and nursing staffs of those local facilities outside of Aramco which were ultimately utilized for primary care and routine hospitalization of Aramco employees and their dependents.

The Saudis have thalassemias which suppress the production of both the alpha and beta hemoglobin chains, producing a wide range of phenotypes with altered red cell morphology, and a range of disease expression from the mildest anemia to the more incapacitating, so-called thalassemia major.

We feel fortunate to have had the cooperation and interest from those who made such vital contributions to Aramco's health care programs. We learn more about endemic malaria in the Eastern Province and measures taken not only to control this disease but to virtually eliminate it from oasis communities in which it was holoendemic.

The malaria was very, very intense in these areas. This cluster of Spa massage b2b di kongsberg markers which confer resistance against two types of malaria is unique to oasis Saudis and to native Africans. Some of them were sent to Beirut for additional instruction as dental hygienists and dental technicians.

Resistance to DDT was encountered inand Dieldrin was introduced for residual spraying in Bythe Saudi government had taken the initiative for malaria control in the Eastern Province. The maternal and child health program was equally effective: inof every 1, children died in their first year of life.

In later years, with increasing availability of auto transportation, there were also more motor vehicle accidents--with attendant trauma and occasional fatalities. Sex clubs london or I had a private room, in sort of an exclusive area, special bachelor guest house, that was it.

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Well, some immunity; there were Swinging clubs in loveland few deaths among the adults. Although Saudi Arabia's Eastern Province was not an endemic area for schistosomiasis, the disease was rather common among Aramco employees--many of whom had come from the central and western regions of the Kingdom.

Within two years he became superintendent of Preventive Medicine Division, and from he was chief of Preventive Medicine. But in Saudi Arabia there was an additional complication: seasonal pneumonitis due to pulmonary larval migration.

Morsy, T. Oriental Sore in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It told the story of developing and producing oil as a t effort by Americans and Saudis. The Texas Company did some of the recruiting for Aramco at that time.

A relatively small proportion of Saudi employees had families at that time. Gelpi, Mustafa, and Perrine. I can remember vividly in the next morning flying over the North African desert battlefield, the Rommel area.

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Edited, and with Volume Introduction by Armand P. Early inthis editor learned that The Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley, had produced a collection of oral histories contributed by six retirees from the Arabian American Kimarie massage willowdale Company Aramco.

No other corporation has matched this t endeavor of oil production and health services--either at home or abroad. Written essay by John C. Snyder, dean, Harvard School of Public Health.

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And the project is not even mentioned in the text. Among the children of employees, dependents, there was probably a high death rate. Paul Arnot, who ed Aramco in as an engineer, recalled no company clinic in existence. From he was Aramco's medical director.

And it was not until measles immunization became as widely available in Saudi Arabia as it was in Europe and the United States that the former disease began to decline Massage with sex in suffolk. When I got to the Dhahran airport--the Dhahran airport in those days was kind of a corrugated tin shack.

Conservation of support funds was essential to bring the project along; and with this in mind, my Bancroft Library historian, Carole Hicke, and I decided to conduct interviews on a regional basis. Beginning inthe Saudi government had developed a cooperative malaria surveillance program with Aramco in the Eastern Province.

Finally, Saudis --again, primarily within the oasis populations--tend to lack the Duffy blood group antigens, which function as receptors on the human red cell for the Plasmodium vivax malarial parasite. But with effective case finding--through x-ray screening and skin testing--early treatment with an arsenal of effective drugs, and meticulous outpatient followup, it appeared that Saudis could expect the same satisfying from modern treatment as Europeans or Americans.

Studies on the distribution, the Free mulch rugby clinical features, the genetics, and the molecular biology of the condition in Saudis began with a collection of patients encountered on routine visits or during hospitalization for other, unrelated problems.

As this is being written, editing is underway on the last of the oral histories. The Duffy negative blood group is an African genetic trait, shared to a lesser extent by Middle East populations and Americans of African descent.

That was probably not entirely malaria, but probably to a large degree due to malaria.

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As expected, poorly defined low back pain, without a clear history of job-related, predisposing incident, was fairly common. I was interested primarily in medical entomology--malaria control, that kind of thing.

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Early leadership by company officers such as Tom Barger and Cy Hardy fostered attitudes of pluralism and respect for the Saudi culture. Alio, Ivan. Now the question of alcoholism and its consequences. But most of all, we are grateful for their oral histories.

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Ina Tantra massage rockingham city from Aramco's Preventive Medicine Division initiated a large-scale epidemiologic survey of sixty-seven communities scattered throughout the Kingdom.

No, no, I don't think so. This was a new area and a big opportunity for me, and I found myself agreeing to go and ing up. But among adults and children, the site of entry for viable tetanus organisms was often inapparent. The Regional Oral History Office was established in to augment through tape-recorded memoirs the Library's materials on the history of California and the West.

As Frank Jungers, former chairman and CEO of Aramco, explained, "We just tried to move in the direction of providing good care and minimizing work force disruption. And contributors have much to say about relationships between the medical staffs in Dhahran and the two districts: Ras Tanura and Abqaiq.

Which is why the organism, Coxiella burnettihas been considered a candidate for biological warfare. Epidemiological and clinical features in a non-immune population living in an endemic area.

Byfewer than a dozen cases were acquired in the Eastern Province. The unusual constellation of red cell genetic markers--G6PD deficiency, the thalassemias, and hemoglobin S, together and separately --are believed to confer considerable resistance to falciparum malaria, and most likely have profoundly affected both the endemicity and severity of this type of malaria in oasis populations.

For example, you would find that a woman may have seven or eight children, and only one or two would have survived, or even less. Saudi employees were covered, of course, but it became evident that their families needed help also. And control measures had started inprimarily through an extensive residual spraying campaign utilizing DDT.

There was an immediate and dramatic reduction in the incidence of malaria--both among employees and among villagers in outlying oases which were being monitored with annual malaria surveys.

Risky chemical exposures, such as those related directly to oil production, were rare. was one of them; he was associate medical director of the Texas Company at the time. Other genetic markers which affected red blood cells in Saudis, particularly the oasis populations, are the thalassemias and glucosephosphate dehydrogenase G6PD deficiency.

Since before biblical times, the Arabs on the coast had a series of artesian wells, flowing wells, all up and down the coast. Partly, it seems, because the need, like the distant mountain to be climbed, "was there.

It would be safe to say that Nuru massage downtown novato was available in abundance to many people in Saudi Arabia's Eastern Province.

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Poliomyelitis was still present in the local population, and in there were ten reported cases of paralytic disease reported from Aramco medical facilities.

The Saudis, for their part, responded with equal measure. This operation lacked a hospital; so cases needing hospitalization were sent to Bahrain Island, about twenty miles offshore.

Doctor Daggy was one of Just looking for cuddlerfor today medical pioneers; and in this role he rose to head preventive medicine and eventually to guide the staff of the medical department as its medical doctor.

But Aramco's doctors were not seeing very much tobacco smoking-related diseases--chronic obstructive lung disease and mouth cancers--except for the emergence of lung cancer among aging Saudis.

Once again, this was with the understanding that alcohol consumption would not take place in Muslim Escorts en el rugby and would not be distributed--even as a gift--to Muslims.

With prosperity and improvements in hygiene, clinical trachoma was less evident, and other indices of infection less apparent. But by the age of sixty, almost all of the expatriates had reached retirement and were on their way back to points of origin.

He then undertook a program of spraying in the villages, checking the effect every few weeks. This was exclusively a disease of Saudis, characteristically occurring each spring, usually several weeks after the brief, annual rainy season. I wrote them and said I was a little puzzled as to why malaria could be such a big problem in Saudi Arabia.

For example, in a little more than a two-year period, it was possible to collect data on cases of the disease referred to medical facilities in an area adjacent to Saudi Arabia's capital, Riyadh. As it turned out, Western ingenuity and the Saudis' kindly tolerance for Westerners made it possible to produce and consume alcohol in privacy.

Americans and others produced alcohol in the time-honored tradition of fermentation, using yeast and some source of sugar, and they went on to further refine and concentrate the product by a series of distillations, which often resulted in a concentration of ethanol approaching 95 percent.

Tetanus was an endemic problem in the Saudi population at all ages, but mostly among the newborn.

But it wasn't until late and early that the interviews began. After you got your Doctor of Philosophy, you were doing various things, but let me ask you when you first started to get interested in Aramco.

Officially, Aramco was nationalized on November 11, But in fact, preparations had started inand there were gradual changes in management structure throughout the company--including the Medical Department--from that time until the corporate change became official.

If they were going to die, they died as children. The main medical problems confronting Alexander at this time were endemic communicable diseases such as malaria, trachoma, smallpox, and tuberculosis.

I should probably break off for a moment here. The Saudi authorities strictly prohibit the importation and sale of alcoholic beverages.

In residential environments, among Saudi dependents, there was a ificant of burns from the use of gasoline-fueled stoves. I don't remember the name of the medical director as such. Now oil production--which is what Aramco did, and did well--is one thing.

The mosquito breeding was occurring in the oases. All literary rights in the manuscript, including the right to publish, are reserved to The Bancroft Library of the University of California, Berkeley.

For example, the company used its resources to collect and preserve old books and manuscripts concerning the history of the Canning vale gay sex topix. Three of the contributors to this series rose from the ranks to become Aramco medical directors: Drs.

Daggy, Handschin, and Taylor. It is a spokenoffered by the interviewee in response to questioning, and as such it is reflective, partisan, deeply involved, and irreplaceable. March Sonoma, California. You got the Doctor of Philosophy, and then you also got another degree, I believe. The Preventive Medicine Division at DHC started a program of tuberculosis case finding and control, maternal-child health clinics had been established, and health education projects were being developed.

And typically, the lymphomas were of the non-Hodgkin's type, often presenting with abdominal disease, rather than with the peripheral or mediastinal adenopathy usually associated with lymphomas among other populations.

No part of the manuscript may be quoted for publication without the written permission of the Director of The Bancroft Library of the University of California, Berkeley.

Richard Daggy ed Aramco in as medical entomologist. My first job was to begin to get out in the fields and take a malaria survey. Such a narrative required ificant financial support.

His work along the way has been indispensable, and we are inordinately grateful to him for his interest and efforts.

We learn how Aramco's corporate structure affected administration in its Medical Department. And last of all, we learn something about the destinies of those who left Aramco for other professional pursuits back in the U. It may seem strange that there is so little said about Aramco's corporate change from its role as a creature of Mobil, Exxon, Texaco, and Chevron to an oil company owned and operated by the Saudi government.

Although the specific viral agent could not be identified in the Saudi cases at the time, there is good reason to believe this infection was due to the hepatitis E virus--based on more recent experience with infections due to this agent and on the sero-epidemiology of hepatitis E. There is more to the Would be very sex car for 420 a nice girl of communicable disease: the interviews in this Looking for hiking sex dhahran maybe camping will mention some diseases included in this introduction.

And of course, malaria had existed there from time immemorial to the present. The Aramco towns were in the desert, and they were far away from any mosquitos or malaria in that sense.

This was about June Pakistani dating sites manteca, early June, The hot season had just begun, and the shamalthe wind, was blowing.

People were concentrated in the villages and in the oases, and the mosquitos were all concentrated, of course, in the springs and the water-bearing areas. His wife, Pat, tly contributed her experiences to this collection. An earlier volume of Aramco oral histories H1. Gelpi located the interviewees and established contact with them, smoothing the way for the interviews.

I had reason to think that I would have plenty of chances to go to Venezuela, to South America, but I would never get a chance to go to Arabia, I thought. We regret only that circumstances of geography and limited finances prevented us from obtaining and including interviews from others who made memorable contributions to the Aramco and Saudi Aramco health care programs.

And in this context, environmental health and industrial medicine were to be important considerations. Wherever trachoma was encountered, prevalence and severity could be correlated with the level of socioeconomic development and of sanitation.

And so prostate cancer and stroke were uncommon. We had an office in one of these portable bunkhouses at first.

But not in the American community. Its success was monumental. Three others were intimately involved in the trachoma research project sponsored by the Harvard School of Public Health and supported by Aramco: Dr.

Bernard Eggerman, DDS, pioneered the development of Aramco's comprehensive dental care program, integrating it with the medical department's health care program. It was during the late s that several noninfectious diseases attracted the attention of clinicians and researchers in Aramco's Medical Department.

Aramco's interest in Arabia extended beyond the production of oil. Do you know who--somebody in management--said this is a big problem, we need an entomologist? Thereafter, there was a steady decline. The usual cancers which characterize aging populations of the West were less evident among the Saudis.

With the advent of immunization programs--and thereby an emerging population of immune mothers--neonatal tetanus virtually disappeared among Aramco's Saudi newborns, and became a vanishing infection among children and adults for the same reasons.

Thus the growth of the Medical Department, thoroughly documented in this volume of oral histories. In Pc massage sheffield united kingdom days you put down overnight, you didn't fly at night, and we put down in Malta for the night.

Well, a dormitory room. But sickle cell disease was not diagnosed nearly as often as it should have been, simply because the disease was so mild in Saudis.

She would indicate that the fever got them. Well, they recognized that Aramco had the problem, not in the American population because that was in the Fuck women encinitas compound.

We did this in quite a few villages. It was not showing Saudi Arabia at its best. Among his other accomplishments, Dr. Alexander started to train young Saudi men as nursing assistants.

The scale on which this was done, the people who were key participants, the consequences for all those employees and their families associated with Aramco, and how Aramco's Medical Department provided services to the non-Aramco population of Saudi Arabia's Eastern Province seemed to be the ideal ingredients of an exciting story.

As oil operations increased and s of employees rose, more medical staff was hired, and services grew. Robert Oertley had several roles in Aramco's health care operation: family practitioner, district medical director, and epidemiologist.

And of course, Escorts of buena park Arabia was no exception.

They had not even ed the Sex chat room fort collins colorado of the "geriatric" population when they left Saudi Arabia.

In contrast to infected patients from other populations in the Middle East, the majority of Saudis seemed to have mild disease with few symptoms.

It seemed clear that neonatal tetanus was due to infection through contamination of the umbilicus shortly after birth. Early on, dental care was incorporated into the district outpatient services.

By Looking for hiking sex dhahran maybe camping, the was down to 30 of 1,

Gordon Flom was a prime mover in Aramco's medical facility renovations and construction during the s. In addition, or alternatively, these conditions may have created an enrichment phenomenon--either by propagation of the CL parasites within the rodent population, an increase in the rodent population, or both.

No, looking down on the whole countryside. I was very lucky; most of the people were in shared quarters. Early revelations about the expression of sickle cell disease in Saudis attracted the attention of other workers in Saudi Arabia and elsewhere, leading to intense research efforts, which still continue in the Kingdom.

I feel privileged to have been a member of Aramco's health care team. Buttiker, W. Ecological studies in Hofuf, eastern Saudi Arabia, in relation to dermal leishmaniasis.

They comment in some detail as to how the liaison between Aramco and these "contract" facilities was established and sustained. So it was having a greater impact on the children than on the adults, and that was one of the keys that we used to measure malaria in the area.

It was difficult to distinguish abdominal lymphomas from abdominal tuberculosis--the two so often presenting with similar s and symptoms. It took a generation of employees and dependents--some with incipient, some with florid psychosis or neurosis--before Aramco's health care system began to deal with psychiatric illness by utilizing professionals and facilities for psychiatric care at the Dhahran Health Center.

But Aramco's medical problems were by no means confined to exotic diseases plus the usual degenerative diseases of Western society. But the thrust of the program was to accumulate information on the epidemiology of the disease in Saudi Arabia, which would be of help in developing control measures, not only for the Kingdom, but for adjacent countries with endemic trachoma having similar climatic and social conditions.

What about degenerative diseases of middle age and beyond, which seem to plague Western societies? The epidemiology of malaria in the Eastern Province was being explored and a malaria Westminster girl sex show program was underway.

The corrected manuscript is indexed, bound with photographs and illustrative materials, and placed in The Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley, and in other research collections for scholarly use.

Bythe was down to 30 of 1, The oral histories in this volume encompass most of the post-World War II decades, and continue through the building of new facilities completed in the s.

And while there was an efflorescence of both private and government health care programs and Arvada locanto personals services within the Kingdom, information on health demographics was lacking except as an extrapolation of epidemiologic data gathered by Aramco.

It was known that the sickle cell trait was present at a fairly high frequency within the oasis populations of the Eastern Province.

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Well, first of all, where were your offices? For those working both outside and in interior environments in which air conditioning was lacking, every effort was made to avoid dangerous exposure to high temperatures.

As expected, in any large industrial undertaking--either domestic or foreign--employees were exposed to a variety of hazards in the workplace. Transmission was seasonal--limited to winter and spring--because of the intense daytime temperatures during the rest of the year, which prevented Horny adult weekend getaways in kreuzlingen of helminth ova.

Infamilies from the U. During the World War II years, three more physicians were recruited, and wards were added to the existing clinics. But by the mid-seventies, lung cancer was rapidly overtaking leukemias and lymphomas in incidence, primarily among an emerging, older, Saudi population.

I had introduced Looking for hiking sex dhahran maybe camping of those into the New Hebrides during malaria control work with the navy.

Mortality from diarrheal disease, which peaked in prior to a steep rise in hospital admissions for this problem--declined rapidly, but ahead of the decline in morbidity. Basically, Aramco's health care program was involved with two rather distinct populations: a relatively small of American and Escort backpage palmerston county expatriates--many with their young families--and a much larger group of primarily young Saudis.

What emerged from this investigation was a monograph, Nuru massage spa in peoria as a limited, paperback edition in It remains unmatched as the most extensive and complete study of its kind ever carried out in Saudi Arabia.

Ultimately these studies would involve a team of researchers from Oxford, as well as Aramco clinicians and technical support in the laboratories of Dhahran Health Center. I can remember having to walk over a kind of sand dune to get into the corrugated iron building, and again I thought: What have I done, what have I done?

I'm Bachelor of Science. Those who have contributed to this collection of oral histories will tell stories which will deal with Aramco's health care program in more detail--highlighting certain disease problems, medical research, relationships with non-Aramco health care agencies and medical care Big tit sluts bayamon, disease prevention, health care facility de and construction, interaction with various parts of Aramco's administrative elements, and personal experiences related to work and residence in Saudi Arabia.

I agreed, but I felt it was kind of a waste of time. What have I done? It is the story of health services extended beyond employees and their dependents, of health care provided to a needy general public before government and entrepreneurial services were widely available.

Americans and other Western expatriates residing in Aramco communities were protected by residential air conditioning. As Aramco's Medical Department expanded in the s, so did the subspecialties of psychiatry and clinical psychology. For example, Dr.

Phil Gelpi said: "I was able to see, in the eight-year period that I was in a full-time position at Aramcoa very rapid decrease of malaria infections in the Eastern Province. I had explored various opportunities in South America and Venezuela, and then I got a phone call from an old malaria control buddy whom I had known in the South Pacific who asked if I was interested in Aramco.

In a collaborative research project on trachoma was established between Aramco's Medical Department and the Harvard School of Public Health.

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Recollections of fourteen medical professionals in Saudi Arabia who from the s through the s participated in a unique program to mitigate and solve not only the health problems of Aramco corporate employees and their dependents but those of the local population as well.

Ultimately epidemiological patterns emerged which indicated that trachoma was essentially a Fuck girl in gaithersburg disease, and that it was most prevalent in the most primitive and isolated oasis villages.

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And then I flew on to Cairo, and ed the Aramco plane--they had their own plane in those days. I thought it was nothing more than a sea of sand. There is material on hospital and facility construction brought about by the rapid expansion of oil production, with corresponding increases in the size of the work force and the s of dependents eligible for health care.

Many Saudis and expatriates from other countries could have contributed ificantly to this history, but restraints of distance and travel put these out of our reach for the present.

Surprisingly, heat exposure was less of a problem than anticipated. Dental specialty services were developed at Dhahran Health Center, and later as a large, free-standing dental clinic--adjacent to DHC--with a full range Women looking sex tonight willamina oregon treatment and preventive services.

And we can trace a continuous thread of interaction between preventive and curative services within Aramco's health care program. The ordinary local farmer did not.

Further, in the s and fifties, deaths from communicable diseases, such a tuberculosis, pneumonia, smallpox, hepatitis, malaria, typhoid and viruses, were common; in the s, the death rate of employees from these diseases dropped to zero.

Because it is primary material, oral history is not intended to present the final, verified, or complete narrative of events.

Requests for permission to quote for publication should be addressed to the Regional Oral History Office, Library, University of California, Berkeleyand should include identification of the specific passages to be quoted, anticipated use of the passages, and identification of the user.

There is talk about how Aramco's health care program influenced the evolution of private and government health care services in Saudi Arabia.

Before the mosquito abatement effort was undertaken, a quarter of the employees had at least one attack of malaria a year.

And he asked Aramco to look into it. My original major was zoology, biology. He reviewed the transcripts, wrote an introduction to each, and indexed them.

The same year, similar--though much smaller--facilities were opened in both Ras Tanura and Abqaiq, and their older units were closed. Some of them may have, but most of them did not. Diarrheal disease, primarily in infants and children, was always a ificant medical problem during the early years of Aramco's health care program.

Some of the men would get it too, of course, but it would be particularly difficult when the Saudi foremen or Saudi headmen were down with malaria. InAramco's Medical Department hired its first industrial hygienist, and by had its first occupational health physician.

Aramco began producing oil in Saudi Arabia in King 'Abd al 'Aziz had granted Socal the concession in to explore for and produce oil in parts of Saudi Arabia, and the company finally encountered oil in commercial quantities after five years of searching.

Escort service in atl population genetics of this disorder have been thoroughly worked out in Saudis, and this research has been continued elsewhere--again, at other institutions in Saudi Arabia.

Alcoholism, then, was a problem, but no more nor less than might be expected in any expatriate community representing a slice of America. Ivor Morgan was Aramco's first obstetrician. I recall getting on a plane and flying to London.

WHO Chronicle Viral hepatitis was common in the Saudi population and was associated with high mortality among pregnant and recently delivered women. Yes, I sort of interviewed them. This was--and still is--in striking contrast to the character of the disease in Africa and among African Americans.

The staff are very helpful and friendly, even if Looking for hiking sex dhahran maybe camping of them find it hard to understand English.

During the spring months there was also a recurring flu-like illness--Q fever--among Americans and other expatriates living in Aramco communities.

Trachoma was hyperendemic in the oases of Saudi Arabia's Eastern Province, with prevalence as high as 90 percent in some communities.

Surprisingly, delirium tremens, acute alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic neuropathy, liver disease, and cardiomyopathy were rare. A program of smallpox eradication had been undertaken in the late s by the Saudi government, and this disease soon disappeared from the Eastern Province.

Ultimately, dental services included all the subspecialties of surgery, restorative dentistry, endodontia, periodontia, and orthodontia.

A byproduct of the research on benign sickle cell disease in Saudis has been a greater understanding of certain genetic factors--other than the hemoglobin S gene itself--which modify the expression of the disease, and applications of this knowledge to develop new treatments for the more severe, African-type disease.

The Americans and Europeans, as expected, experienced hypertension, coronary artery disease, and three major cancers--lung, breast, and colon--at about the same frequency and in the same age stratification as might be observed in America or Europe.

We came away with twelve direct interviews, one telephone interview, and one written contribution. Great efforts were made by the Americans to train and promote Saudis, and great efforts were made by the Saudis to provide for the needs of the oil company.

Here we have an unparalleled, corporate accomplishment, not only in major industry, but as a vast humanitarian effort in personalized health care, disease prevention, health education, and biomedical research.

Oh, after the war, inI guess. Take the preventive medicine program, for example. We learn about the demographics of health and disease in eastern Saudi Arabia, and how they were changed by Aramco's health care program.

Daggy's work in eradicating malaria has received the highest praise from other members of the medical staff who were in Saudi Arabia. Further expansion of oil production resulted in more employees and the need Wanting a bj willing to p2p more and better medical facilities.

Bacterial dysentery Shigella infections remained a ificant endemic problem throughout the s Hot single mom bramsche s with rates up to 50 per 10, population.

This would have beenmaybe ' Robert C. was the distinctive one; he later became medical director of Aramco and a close friend of mine.

Eggerman b. On the night of October 19,both Dhahran and Bahrain were bombed by Italian planes; and subsequently, families were evacuated until the end of World War II.

American families began to return inand by Aramco was operating clinics, infirmaries, a pharmacy, and hospitals--with a total bed capacity of scattered throughout the areas of oil production.

There is continual emphasis on professional standards, ability, quality assessment, periodic evaluation by the American t Commission on Hospital Accreditation, and upon continuing medical education.

Both Carole Hicke and I feel even more fortunate to have been able to put this project together for The Bancroft Library's Regional Oral History Office, for Saudi Aramco, and for those readers who--we hope--will recognize the scholarship with which we have tried to invest this work.

Exporting health care--which it also did--to what could well be considered a developing country in the s and beyond is quite another. Oral history is a method of collecting historical information through tape-recorded interviews between a narrator with firsthand knowledge Looking for hiking sex dhahran maybe camping historically ificant events and a well-informed interviewer, with the goal of preserving substantive additions to the historical record.

Even more singular, perhaps most remarkable of all, was the work of the Aramco Medical Department in achieving unprecedented successes in the research and treatment of local, tropical diseases, in local public health programs, and in preventive medicine projects.

To speed up this favorable trend, a field Massage therapy bank street fremantle of immunization was carried out on almost 5, subjects--with both disappointing Sex school bolingbrook inconclusive.

I was puzzled as to why a good, self-respecting malaria mosquito could make its way in Saudi Arabia. During the decade of the s, the trachoma research program became the centerpiece for Aramco's research efforts--as the disease itself began to yield to the pressures of economic development and social change.

Beginning with six cases inthere was an explosive increase in the disease occurring among Aramco's Saudi employees and dependents--with a reported total of cases by the end of Reports of cutaneous leishmaniasis CL in widely separated areas of the Kingdom began to appear in published reports from sources outside of Aramco's Medical Department.

The first year we covered about thirteen, fourteen villages, and then second year we went to a nearby oasis, Hofuf oasis, and did Sherwood park sexy blog as well.

And partly out of inevitability. There were rapid population shifts, accelerated suburban development, and vast building projects which served to increase human contact with the sandfly vector.

Tell me what you started out doing. Interestingly, there was almost continuous interaction between our contributors--both socially and professionally--during parts of three decades, spanning the mid-fifties to the late seventies.

The incense burner on the right came from a traditional Looking for hiking sex dhahran maybe camping in Bahrain.

The people who contributed so much in developing and extending Aramco's health care services. The importance of his studies on the epidemiology of oasis malaria in Saudi Arabia and his efforts in establishing malaria surveillance and Dating bolton online procedures for Aramco and the Kingdom cannot be overstated.

A Negril manchester prostitution or a foreman would come down with malaria, and then the rest of them would not have any direction.

Parasit The central issue in the evolution of CL in Saudi Arabia during the s and s appeared to be the ecology of this disease in relation to the dramatic social change and economic development which characterized this period.

Clearly, it was more efficient to establish a clinic in Dhahran. I was met by someone at the plane and taken to accommodations in a dormitory. Malaria and Saudi Arabia didn't seem to go together very well.

I took a Master of Science and Doctoral Philosophy degree in medical entomology. We'd round up kids in the local village square, and then bribe them by giving them fig newtons for a drop of blood. Majcuk, J. Trachoma control in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Although there had been isolated reports of the disease cutaneous leishmaniasis Oriental sore, Baghdad boil from the Arabian peninsula before and during Aramco's early years, it was not until the s that this condition reached epidemic proportions.

And during the summer ofwe received a financial supplement to our original grant from Saudi Aramco to bring this project to its completion.

Rounding up the children in each village--and bribing them with fig newtons! They tell of exotic diseases, hands-on care from dedicated doctors and nurses, creative and imaginative corporate administration, health care services which breached language and cultural barriers, Cuckold couple savannah friendships, and cutting-edge medical research.

Gelpi b. I don't think there is any question that this is directly attributable to the Aramco program that was initiated by Dr.

Daggy and was eventually taken up by the Ministry of Health. And there is no question that consumption of alcohol by Muslims is forbidden. In this group, lymphomas and leukemias were the most common, followed by stomach cancer.

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Another possibility is that widespread residual spraying for malaria in townsites of the Eastern Province had earlier decimated the sandfly population, thus interrupting transmission of CL.

But residual spraying was to a great extent abandoned and replaced by a larviciding program in in the al-Hasa oasis, some eight years before the sharp increase 94513 xxx girls the incidence of CL was observed.

We had eight men--what we called an eight-man bunkhouse, two to a room. Contributors help us to understand how research on local medical problems added to general medical knowledge as well as enabling practitioners to use this knowledge in disease prevention and patient care.

Despite an active safety program inaugurated early in Aramco's history, there were a variety of job-related accidents and associated trauma.

What made this collection unique is that its contributors played major roles in Aramco's management during its developmental years, before the company was turned over to the Saudi government as Saudi Aramco.

We planned to obtain interviews from fourteen key people.

His last posting was to be at the American Looking for hiking sex dhahran maybe camping in Nicaragua.

It was just all sand, it looked like to me. The camp was located in a non-mosquito zone in I guess we should clarify this; as I understand it, the mosquitos were mostly in the oases.

There is considerable commentary about the relationship between the Medical Department, the company's Industrial Relations executives, and other top-level management.

Castellania 3: Bienzle, U. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Publications on the problem of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Saudi Arabia continue to appear from various sources outside of Saudi Aramco's medical services.

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Preventive and curative medicine had entered upon a unique partnership which--together with its projects in medical research--would become the hallmark of Aramco's health care program. The tape recording is transcribed, lightly edited for continuity and clarity, and reviewed by the interviewee.

We'd stab them, take a blood smear, and take the slides back to the laboratory and examine them for malaria parasites. Interviews with Richard Daggy b.

So began the annals of a unique corporate enterprise, unique because of its size, its Arabian operations, and its close interaction with the people of Saudi Arabia.

I had returned to the University of Minnesota to be on the staff, but I was not particularly interested in agricultural entomology.