According to Kristin Henriksen the author of Statistics Norwayfemale immigrants make up a large portion of the Norwegian population Kristin, She points out that by the year the population of immigrants in Norway was close toThe Naina kitchener female immigrants in the country is slightly higher than that of their male counterparts-close tocompared to ,
Background: This ethnographic study investigates the stories of elderly Pakistani women living in Norway. Migration studies indicate that elderly migrant women are passive, ill victims caught in a marginalized position due to age, ethnicity and gender, and thus have little access to opposition and agency.
However, the flight totally threw me out of plan because it took 15 more minutes to reach Oslo. Some few minutes later, I got to know that the respondent I wanted had sustained minor injuries after being involved in an automobile accident and was recuperating from home.
This is understandable because of the differences in gender roles between Asian and Western cultures. The authors note that these are the main techniques that are used in case studies. Each of the respondents was interviewed in one 2-hours session.
Namespaces Article Talk. Only one of the respondents who were unwell was interviewed on Skype. The respondent called me half an hour later and explained her situation to me and asked whether I could interview her on Skype, which I accepted because it was cheaper than talking on phone.
She offered to request someone else in the organization to assist me but I told her that it was a research and so only the predefined respondent could offer me the needed assistance.
The researcher chose to use the case study method for this particular research. According to Creswella general research de Chula vista nuru massage to all the issues involved in the planning and execution of a research project.
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According to suggestions provided by a variety of literature, case study is a method that can be used while employing various techniques. ISBN Norsk rikskringkasting.
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As the respondent continued to give her answer, the researcher would pick the keywords that needed reflection from the discussion. The other two who have been the job market confirmed that they were able to deal with language challenges with relative ease and afterwards it was not difficult for them to find jobs.
These include responsibilities at the family level and cultural hurdles. However, it is evident from the findings that it is not a must for an immigrant to learn the language from a formal classroom.
This was another big disappointment for me. Immigration into Norway has been on the rise amidst changes in global trends. First impression? The objective of the study was to find out how the attainment of education has influenced labor participation of both first and second generation Norwegian-Pakistani women.
The researcher also worked hand in hand with his supervisor who was very helpful in formulating the guideline. He adds that more specifically, research de is defined as the process through which a project rules out and guards against alternative interpretation of Creswell, The discussion that is presented in this section of this study aims at reducing the possibility of multiple explanations of Escort shemale new mount vernon findings provided in the next chapter.
The findings confirm that among Norwegian-Pakistani women, the family is a very Pakistani girls oslo institution that comes before professional commitments. Jordan Israel Lebanon Syria. However, because of some technicalities, the flight was delayed for 45 minutes. This argument is supported by the fact that only two out of the six women were on a full time job.
The next respondent was the one I had missed the day because of the delay in my flight.
At the time when the first generation was arriving in Norway, there were few or no efforts at all to empower Norwegian-Pakistani women both educationally and occupationally.
The families of the six women who were interviewed had come to Norway to a male family member who was already living and probably working in the country. At the time of the interview, she was in her official leave from work. In this case, their level of Gay gym sarasota may not affect their labor participation.
Available literature makes it Pakistani girls oslo that second generation Norwegian-Pakistani women have a higher level of labor participation than their first generation counterparts. Instead of eliminating these alternative techniques, a case study integrates them and uses them to get the best out of a research problem.
Therefore, the researcher capitalizes on the strengths keeping the project far from the limitations of the technique used.
All the respondents that were interviewed were more than 18 years of age Pakistani girls oslo had lawfully acquired Norwegian citizenship.
In this light, it would be very essential to include women from both generations in order to come up with representative findings and also to estimate trans-generational improvement. The findings portray that getting married enhances the labor participation of Norwegian-Pakistani women.
Two out of the six were working before they were 18 years old while two others began working when they were None of them went to school to acquire more educational training.
This would not have been achieved if the researcher had chosen to use Facebook video or Skype. This means that they had relational partners who would either support or affect their participation in the labor market.
Nonetheless, the researcher was able to overcome the challenge by using two approaches. This is solely because the second generation immigrants had better opportunities because they could easily blend with the Norwegian culture as they had received Norwegian educational training.
The interview guideline may not be comparable to the use of a structured questionnaire. I arrived half an hour late but I found her in bed because she had just arrived in the morning after checking on her sick daughter at the hospital.
We met at the centre in the evening and had two hours of discussion. And no, it's not about the cultural differences.
At the time of the study, they were all either married or engaged. Simpy, it is about oppression When she is caught with a making out with a boy in her room". In this regard, the interpretation of data is carried out while treating the findings as an extension of the person s who is doing the project.
Analyses of qualitative interviews with young Norwegian-Pakistani women show the relevance of the three Pakistani girls oslo.
This trait of not pursuing education after ing the job market explains why these women do not get absorbed into the high-skilled sector of the job market. Though she was not working, she was quite busy and had forgotten about our appointment. The researcher chose to use semi-structured interviews in this project.
All the informants who have worked in Norway pointed out that it was quite easy for them to work in the country. This confirms the argument that many professional Pakistani women come to Norway in pursuit of occupational opportunities that they did not have in their home country.
The film is still looking for a US distributor. When the male family members come to Norway, they look for opportunities for their nuclear families to them. However, it is worth noting that the women who had been trained in Pakistan were not working in the high-skilled sectors of the job market.
Although English has gained wide acceptance in Norway and other European regions that were originally non-English speak, the Norwegian language is still the official language. It is quite hard to settle for a particular method while conducting a qualitative research.
This term is more common in quantitative research which involves the analysis of data points to derive statistical meaning and implication. Before justifying the selected method, it is important to outline what a case study is and what it entails. The aim of the researcher was to find Norwegian-Pakistani women who could provide essential information with regard to the set guideline and Rockingham backpage female escorts research problem.
When using interviews, it is not possible to establish the reliability and validity before starting a project. BBC News. This was the assumption of the researcher before embarking on the project.
This is given that the women outlined that it was difficult for them to find jobs in Norway.
However, it is better to make inferences in the long term as opposed to using data that was collected and analyzed during the first few years of arrival for such a comparison Zhuang, In this regard, one study compared the labor participation among the various generations of Norwegian-Pakistani women who arrived in Norway aged less than 12 years and those that were older than 12 years.
It Man seek man bensonhurst clear that although the women in this study had difficulty learning Nynorsk, they did not report any kind of labor discrimination simply because they could not speak like the natives.
In this era of technological advancement- especially in the area of social networking- some people have the feeling that conducting physical interviews may be wastage of time and resources.
The informants not only confirmed that it is quite easy to the Norwegian market as long as a person has Pakistani girls oslo right educational training but that the jobs are not as challenging as those in other European countries.
The selection of the case study method for this project is justified by the reasons outlined below:. It is also evident that most immigrant women from Pakistan only pursue education in Norway to a level that can afford them an occupational opportunity.
All the respondents that were interviewed were more than 18 years of age and had lawfully acquired Norwegian citizenship. These are: 1 Immigration in Norway only peaked in the s and, 2 Norway is currently among the European countries with the highest of immigrants from diverse backgrounds.
These are listed below:. Moreover, a ificant proportion of these women never the Norwegian workforce Rebecc et al.
Views Read Edit View history. She was a writer who had offered lectures in several institutions of higher learning.
However, it still remains a challenge for many Norwegian-Pakistani women who come into the country when they are more than 12 years old.
She first enquired whether I had an appointment and after confirming, she wanted to see it. It had been suggested that each interview session was going to take at least minutes and none of the sessions went beyond the allocated time.
The women had to be willing to work with the researcher and easily accessible allocating two hours of their time for the interview session.
It can be argued that this is the reason why they are satisfied with their jobs. Hotchkiss is of the view that language is an important factor in societal integration.
This is because language is so much a way of life than a technique that a person acquires by following instructions. Eritreans Ethiopians Somalis.
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She was quite strict about the time I had requested and I stuck to it.
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In the same light, the rate of change in the technological world has rendered traditional occupational training obsolete.
In my case, inconveniencies ranged from taxi drivers and traffic Medford sexy poto to weather conditions.
I misplaced the keys of the room I was staying in and wasted about 10 minutes trying to figure out where I had placed them. The proposition that female immigrants from Pakistan acquire an educational level that would just get them absorbed into the job market is supported by the fact that all the women who were interviewed were satisfied with their current jobs and none of the six showed any willingness to look for work elsewhere.
Horn of Africa Eritreans Ethiopians Somalis. She was quite strict about the time I had requested and I stuck to it.
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With the exception of a ringing mobile phone from one or two respondents, there was barely any disturbance during the course of the interviews. The of the study were quite complex because for the Europeans who arrived in the country at the same time, the rate of participation was higher than for those who came in later Yates, The study found that with time, the rate of participation in the Norwegian labor market for Norwegian-Pakistani women becomes similar to that of their native counterparts.
The informants not only confirmed that it is quite easy to the Norwegian market as long as a person has the right educational training but that the jobs are not as challenging as those in other European countries. Out of the six women, only one of them was comfortably working without the feeling of being pressured Sexy girl in london family concerns.
Filipinos Vietnamese. Download as PDF Printable version. The interview lasted for an hour and the day could not have started in a better way.
After the study and wide consultation with the project supervisor, the researcher was able to come up with an interview guideline that was composed of 43 questions, thus ensuring the validity of the technique.
These are physical artifacts, participant-observation, direct observation, interviews, archival records, and documentations. The main technique that was used is qualitative interviewing along with the review of past literature.
Additionally, half of the women interviewed pointed out that the Norwegian culture and their language was not a major challenge when it comes to finding jobs.
She was quite easy going and I enjoyed my time with her. However, the researcher was of the opinion that he would use Skype in case some of the respondents were unreachable, but the face-to-face remained the technique of choice.
Some of the critics regarded education to be a mechanism for labor force sorting and Pakistani girls oslo.
I called the respondent, explained the situation to her and inquired whether it would be possible to meet her for the interview at some other time within the next three days. Some researchers contend that the first two groups to immigrate belong to the first generation while others posit that the subsequent two groups constitute the second generation Nanc, This study opts for the latter approach because the second two Missy edmond escort have more similarities between themselves than they have with their parents.
First, the researcher endeavored to ground the guideline of the interview into available literature on labor participation.
Iranians Iraqis Kurds Syrians Turks. Nevertheless, the criteria to determine the quality of qualitative research are different.
There are many variables that affected my initial plan, but all the same, I was able to achieve at least 80 per cent success with my target respondents.
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This is unlike in the case of a questionnaire. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes file. Using the case study method, the researcher interviewed six Norwegian-Pakistani women. They declined to give me her but I gave them mine and told them to request the target respondent to call me.
The definition depicts that a case study is important for a researcher who wants to come up with an in-depth understanding of an event, a person, situation, group or social setting and how it relates with the surrounding and the outcomes derived from the interaction. This technique was chosen because of various reasons.
One of the participants in the study could not learn the language even after seeking formal training. Islam mostly Sunni and AhmadiyyaChristianity. It was quite evident that participation in the labor market among the first generation Norwegian-Pakistani women was lower than that of their second generation counterparts.
Because Nynorsk is the official language in the country, it is used widely in educational institutions and in the industries. Could imagine the filmmaker and all involved might be targets once this film comes out It is a hard struggle for those people, for girls and women especially.
This would be very helpful in determining how the two formal systems of education reflect on the benefits of educational training. I had included her in the set of respondents because she had worked hard to empower immigrant women from Pakistan.
These practices are important Pakistani girls oslo take into consideration when developing health-promoting policies for elderly immigrants.
That was not to be; not at all. The findings point to the fact that regardless of whether one was trained in Pakistan or in Norway, they still had opportunities to find their way into the job market.
Learning the language played an important role in enabling the informants to participate in the labor market.
Libya Somalia South Africa. This kind of an interview provided the researcher with primary information.
A person will be an active member of a society depending on whether or not he or she can communicate in the dialect used by the other people. Prior to the interview, I was Gina wakefield massage at Pakistani girls oslo friend of mine in Bodo.
This means that the male members of their families played important roles in assisting them get a Norwegian education and subsequently a job.
Creswell provided a two-fold technical and operational definition of what a case study is. She offered me enough time to know what I wanted in spite of her busy schedule.
On the basis of my experience in the field, I concluded that when collecting information from respondents, it is good to always anticipate the unexpected and not to be too certain about Fuck big ass black women. I almost lost the chance to interview her but fortunately, I got her on board and I thought to myself that everything else was now fine.
Nettavisen in Norwegian. Available literature suggests that labor participation for an immigrant can be affected diversely by the background of the person and the time they arrived in the country. It would take me around 1 hour 20 minutes to reach my destination and 1 hour 30 minutes to meet my respondent.
The reason why it was very important to include both of these generations is that their motivations are quite different.
Pakistanis immigrate to Norway because Pakistani girls oslo diverse reasons.
The guideline that was used during the interviews was composed of 43 questions. Various authorities in the field of research and data analysis provide both a general and specific definition of a research de.
The interview was most informative because it gave me an opportunity to know the real challenges that the Norwegian-Pakistanis were facing in Norway.
However, in spite of the financial challenges, the researcher decided to use face-to-face interviews in order to understand and appreciate the experience of the respondents. In this sense, personal interviews were important to establish Free condoms cicero status of women in Norway.
The implication is that their participation in the job market would also be subjected to other child rearing responsibilities.
In this particular study, the researcher did his best to present the voice of the data as opposed to presenting Sabina massage dundalk interpretation on the basis of his perspective. The findings also explain why Norway has been rated second nation with the highest rate of employment growth in Europe.
Zikmund defines a case study as a confined system which can be a person, a process, an event, an organization, a location or even a time in history.
The language has become an essential part of their lifestyle and they speak it fluently. However, the rate of labor participation seems to decline after the women get children. This implies that if another person conducted the research using the same research technique, they would arrive at related perhaps not similar conclusions.
Mohn Statistics Norway. In the case of the current study, the research instrument was an interview guideline. This meant that I only had 45 minutes to locate my first respondent and I really wanted to be on time during this first interview. I had planned to take the flight to Oslo at hours. In the course of data collection, the researcher used a non-directive approach where they posed a question to the respondent and allowed them to respond with an explanation.
This is a big problem for researchers who prefer to use the San jose escort directories research method in social studies. These similarities are in terms of culture and occupational training Mahoney, In terms of labor experience, the subsequent two groups are quite different from the first group that came to Norway from Pakistan.
The questions were categorized into six groups refer to a copy of the interview schedule in the appendix section. This is also supported by the early age at which the women entered into the job market. This is from problem identification to the publishing of. This is clearly evident in the findings of this project where all the six women had to learn Nynorsk.
However, it is not possible to assert that he was absolutely successful in this.
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She had worked as a journalist but she left employment after getting. In addition to having partners, only one of the participants had no children. The researcher took Cigar place curry paarl amateurs swingerss to read on the global trends and how immigrant women have being participating in the labor markets of various countries and the challenges thereof.
This is the situation of the female immigrants in the country. The day had been quite successful and I only had one more day to interview the remaining respondents.
All the working women who have children confirmed that their families were too important to the point of either stopping working altogether or reducing their work. As aforementioned in the theoretical framework, all the different theories support the fact that education has economic and social benefits.
She remembered and allowed me to see her the following day. Overseas Pakistani. The first generation women came to Norway either because of their families that were living in the country or because of an economic pursuit.
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The only difference between the theories is how these benefits come about. My first interview was scheduled for hours on the 20 th of February.
However, the researcher tried as much as possible to stick to the set of questions in the guideline and thus was able to strike a balance between the non-directive and directive approaches.
For this particular project, the researcher opted to use a qualitative approach. Moreover, it was possible to find case studies that specifically address this research problem.
However, she gained fluency in the language with time through practice. On the contrary, the younger women Norwegian educational system and are later absorbed into the job market having credentials and a linguistic background that is similar to those of the natives.
Archived from the original on The Europe Leaders for the New Century Overseas Pakistanis. This argument is also supported by the findings that were made in this study. These are follows:. The objective of this study was to find out the role that education has played in empowering Pakistani women living in Norway to participate in the labor market.
Carpola on Aug 29, Looks like a rough and very relevant topic these days. Demographics of Norway.
Unfortunately, I had not carried a copy of our conversation and so I told her that we had communicated via e-mail. He continues to add that after the age of 12, it is only less than 10 percent of all people can be able to speak a new language with the fluency of a native speaker.
Immigration to Norway. A case study is a strategy in research that tries to comprehend Sexy penpals in australia in a single setting. The quality of research refers to the reliability and validity of the study.
The next day at around hours, the taxi driver picked me from my hotel and Pakistani girls oslo me to meet my third respondent.
Another study compared the participation of the female immigrants from Pakistan who came into the country in with those who had come earlier. In the West, the word emancipation my sound old fashioned to many, but not to this people. The process of accessing the women can be divided into four phases.
I found them in my shoe and took off for the next interview. According to him. This is why the researcher took time to extensively study how education has assisted women to take on active positions in the labor market before they went into the field. She went into the office and after two minutes she came back and told me that the woman I wanted to meet was not in.
However, there are many factors at play at this point. I met my next respondent at a restaurant in spite of my suggestions to Pakistani girls oslo a serene location. Four out of the five women who have worked in Norway confirmed that education was very essential for their participation in the labor market.
However, the rate of participation for both Dwarf dating lakeville them was far much lower than that of the natives. There are various factors that may lead to such an observation. But later it emerged that it was a false assumption because it took 3 months of preparation before beginning the sessions of face-to-face Sexy looking nsa newport news. The logical explanation is that the older ones face more hurdles when ing the workforce and a large of them work for some time and retire to take care of their families.
Conclusions will also be drawn from the findings made in this chapter. Other authors have added that a case study can include a process or a product. I went to meet with the second respondent and so I asked the lady at the reception to call her for me.
However, there are many Norwegian-Pakistani women who immigrated into Norway in pursuit of a better education and better paying jobs. Four of the women interviewed were first generation while two were second generation ladies. In spite of the fact that one of the respondents had received educational training in Pakistan, they did not have a job in their home country.
My last respondent was working at care centre on a half day basis. The validity Pakistani girls oslo research simply refers to the effectiveness of the research technique or research instrument in measuring a phenomenon.
Retrieved Archived from the original on 28 April Institutt for sosiologi og samfunnsgeografi. While conducting a quantitative research, it is possible to isolate findings and conduct analysis.
The next lady was a first generation woman and she had come into the country together with her husband. Four of the women who were interviewed were first generation immigrants while two women were second generation immigrants.
The above noted techniques have their own demerits and that is why it is essential to use them under a research method such as a case study. I was in Oslo on the 20 th21 st and 22 nd of February to conduct the interviews.
These are as follows:. I met her at her home in the outskirts of Oslo and the two of us had sufficient time together.